An Operating System (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common service for computer Program.


  • Generally the operating system acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer. Hence it is a bridge between the user and the hardware.
Some Popular Operating systems
  • Windows
  • Mac OS
  • Linux
  • Unix
  • DOS

Objective of Operating system  

  • To make a Computer system convenient to use in an efficient manner.
  • To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users.
  • To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system.
  • To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users and making it easier for the users to access and use other resources.
  • To provide efficient and fair sharing of resources among users and programs.

Functions of Operating system 

  • Processor Management:-It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system.
  • Memory Management:-It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programs as well as users programs and data.
  • Input / Output Management:-It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different input and output devices while one or more programs are executed. And It also Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator.
  • Error Detecting aids:-Operating system constantly monitors the system to detect errors and avoid the malfunctioning of computer system.
  • Security:-Operating system uses Password Protection to protect user data and similar other techniques. It also prevents Unauthorized access to programs and user data.
  • Job Accounting:-Keeping track of time & resource used by various job and users.
  • File Management:-It manages all the File-related activities such as organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing, and protection of files.
  • Device Management:-Device Management Keeps tracks of all devices. This Module also responsible for this task is known as the I/O Controller. It also Performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of the devices.

Features of Operating systems

  • Protected and Supervisor mode.
  • Information and Resource Protection
  • Resource allocation
  • Error detection and handling
  • manipulation of the file system.
  • Handling I/O operations
  • Program Execution
  • Memory management & virtual memory multitasking.
  • Allows disk access and file systems device drivers networking security.

Operating System Types

  • GUI:-It stand for Graphical User Interface. A GUI Operating System contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using Computer Mouse.
  • Multi-user:-A multi-user Operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times.
  • Multiprocessing:-An Operating system capable of Supporting and Utilizing more than one computer processor.
  • Multitasking:-An Operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time.
  • Multithreading:-An Operating System that allows different parts of a software program to run concurrently.
  • Batch Operating System:-In this Operating system user never directly interacts with the computer. Here every user prepares his or her job on an offline device like a punch card and submit it to the computer operator.
  • Time-sharing Operating System:-Time-Sharing Operating system enables people located at a different terminal to use a single computer system at the same time. The Processor time(CPU) which is shared among multiple users is termed as time sharing.
  • Real Time Operating System:-A Real Time Operating System time interval to process and respond to inputs is very small. It means It intended to serve real time application that process data as it comes in, mostly without buffer delay.
  • Distributed Operating System:-Distributed Operating System use many processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to its users.
  • Network Operating System:-Network Operating System runs on a server. It provides the capability to serve to manage data, user, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.

Advantage of using Operating System

  • Allows you to hide details of hardware by creating an abstraction.
  • Easy to use With GUI.
  • Offers an environment in which a user may execute programs/ Applications.
  • Operating System must make sure that the computer system convenient to use.
  • It Provides the computer system resources with easy to use format.
  • Acts as an intermediate between all hardware's and software of the system.

Disadvantage of using Operating system

  • It requires specific device drivers.
  • If any issue Occurs in Operating System, you may lose all the contents which have been stored in your system.
  • Operating system software is quite expensive for small size organizations which adds burden on them.
  • It is Never entirely secure as a threat can occur at any time.

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