One of the greatest innovation of all time which is impacting the future of virtually every industry and every human being is Artificial Intelligence. It is also known as the Industrial Revolution 4.0. And it has been making deep strides in scientific and technological innovation across different fields. It is capable of bringing considerable transformations in the way civilian activities and military operations are conducted.

What is Artificial Intelligence ?

Artificial Intelligence(AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.
It refers to the ability of the machines to perform human intelligence processes like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem-solving and decision making.

Father of Artificial Intelligence is John McCarthy.

How Artificial Intelligence Works ?

Before going to know about how artificial intelligence works we have to know about the various sub domains of artificial intelligence. so that we will know how these subdomains together consider for the working of an artificial intelligence.

  • Machine Learning:-Machine learning teaches a machine how to make inferences and decisions based on past experience. It identifies patterns, analyses past data to infer the meaning of these data points to reach a possible conclusion without having to involve human experience.
  • Deep Learning:-Deep Learning is an Machine Learning technique. It teaches a machine to process inputs through layers in order to classify, infer and predict the outcome.
  • Neural Networks:-Neural Networks are a series of algorithm that captures the relationship between various underlying variables and processes the data as a human brain does. And it works on the similar principles as of Human Neural cells.
  • Natural Language Processing :-It is a science of reading, understanding, interpreting a language by a machine. Once a machine understands what the user intends to communicate, it responds accordingly.
  • Computer Vision:-Computer vision algorithms tries to understands an image by breaking down an image and studying different parts of the objects. This helps the machine classify and learn from a set of images, to make a better output decision based on previous observation.
  • Cognitive Computing:-Cognitive computing algorithms try to mimic a human brain by analyzing text/ speech/ images/ objects in a manner that a human does and tries to give the desired output.

AI Programming focuses on three cognitive Skills:

  • Learning processes:-This aspect of AI programming focuses on acquiring data and creating rules for how to turn the data into actionable  information. The rules, which are called algorithm, provide computing devices with step-by-step instruction for how to complete a specific task.
  • Reasoning Processes:-This aspect of AI programming focuses on choosing the right algorithm to reach a desired outcome.
  • Self-correction process:-This aspect of AI programming is designed to continually fine-tune algorithm and ensure they provide the most accurate result possible.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

There are basically 2 Types of AI 
  • Based on functionality
  • Based on Ability
These 2 types of AI further divided into many categories. 

Based on Functionality

1.Reactive Machines
These are the oldest forms of AI systems that have extremely limited capability. These machines do not have memory-based functionality. This means such machines cannot use previously gained experiences to inform their present action, i.e. these machines do not have ability to learn. These machines could only be used for automatically responding to a limited set or combination of inputs.
Example of a reactive AI machine is IBM's Deep Blue.

2.Limited Memory
Limited memory machines are machines that have the capabilities of purely reactive machines and are capable of learning from historical data to make decisions. Nearly all existing applications that we know of come under this category of AI.
Example of a limited memory AI machines are chatbots, Virtual assistants.

3.Theory of Mind
Theory of mind AI is the next level of AI system that researchers are currently engaged in innovating. A theory of mind level AI will be able to better understand the entities it is interacting with by discerning their needs, emotions, beliefs, and thought processes.

This is the final stage of AI development which currently exist only hypothetically. self-aware AI, which, self explanatorily, is an AI that has evolved to be so akin to the human brain that it has developed self-awareness. This type of AI will not only be able to understand and evoke emotions in those it interacts with, but also have emotions, needs, beliefs, and potentially desires of its own.

Based on Ability

1.Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
This type of artificial intelligence represents all the existing AI, including even the most complicated and capable AI that has ever been created to date. Artificial narrow intelligence refers to AI systems that can only perform a specific task autonomously using human like capabilities. These machines can do nothing more than what they are programmed to do, and thus they have a very limited or narrow range of competencies. Even the most complex AI that uses ML and Deep learning to teach itself falls under ANI.

2.Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
Artificial General Intelligence is the ability of an AI agent to learn, perceive, understand, and function completely like a human being. These systems will be able to independently build multiple competencies and form connections and generalizations across domains, massively cutting down on time needed for training.

3.Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
Artificial super intelligence is the hypothetical AI, i.e. we have not been able to achieve it but if we achieve it. So basically it is the imaginary AI which not only interprets or understands human-behavior and intelligence, but ASI is where machines will become self-aware/ self vigilant enough to surpass the capability of human intelligence and behavioral ability. With superintelligence, machines can think of the possible abstractions/interpretations which are simply impossible for humans to think.

How to Measure if Artificial Intelligence is acting like a human or not ?
We can measure human-likeness of an AI by some techniques these are
  • Turing Test
  • The Cognitive Modelling approach
  • The Law of Thought Approach
  • The Rational Agent Approach
Applications of Artificial Intelligence

  • Self-driving cars, AI algorithms are one of the primary components that facilitate self-driving cars to make sense of their surroundings.
  • Translating text between various languages was a pain point for computers. But deep learning created a revolution in services such as google translate.
  • Digital assistants and smart speakers like Siri, Alexa, Cortana and google assistant utilize artificial intelligence to convert spoken words to text and map the text to certain commands.
  • Facial recognition is one of the most prominent applications of artificial intelligence. It has different uses, including unlocking your phone, paying with your face, and detecting intruders in your home.
  • In Educational sector Artificial Intelligence can make certain educational processes automated like grading, rewarding marks, etc. thus giving educators more time.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
  • AI facilitates decision-making by making the process faster and smarter
  • AI operates 24*7 without interruption or breaks and has no downtime
  • AI drives down the time taken to perform a task. It enables multitasking and eases the workload for existing resources.
  • AI can significantly reduce errors and increase accuracy and precision.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
  • High cost of implementation
  • AI are not suitable for creative pieces of work.
  • It will increase risk of unemployment
  • AI doesn't improve with experience
Future of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence has emerged to be the next big thing in the field of technology. Organizations across the world are coming up with breakthrough innovations in artificial intelligence and machine learning. Artificial intelligence is not only impacting the future of every industry and every human being but has also acted as the main driver of emerging technologies like big data, robotics and IOT. Considering its growth rate, it will continue to act as a technological innovator for the foreseeable future. 

Credit:-Siddharth Nanda (Instagram)

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